MINERALS IN HUMAN NUTRITION
The following substances are essential for mankind.
Human body cannot synthesize those elements, so people need to take them from external source.
Please note that even some chemical substances such as Chrome which are concerned their toxicity are also vital substances.
|MINERAL||LOCATION IN BODY AND
SELECTED BIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS
|RDA AI, OR ESADDI FOR ADULTS||LIKELIHOOD OF DEFICIENCY|
|Calcium||99% in bones end teeth
Ionic calcium in body fluids is essential for ion transport across cell membranes.
Calcium may also be bound to protein,
citrate, or inorganic acids.
|Al is l000 mg for
women and men
1200 mg for women
and men 51+yrs.
|Dietary surveys indicate that many diets do not meet AIs for calcium.
Because bone serves as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain calcium levels in the blood, many essential functions are maintained, regardless of dietary intake.
Long-term dietary deficiency is probably one of the factors responsible for development of osteoporosis later in life.
|Phosphorus||About 80% in inorganic portion of bones and teeth
Phosphorus is a component of every cell, as well as of important metabolites, including DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids.
Phosphorus is also important to pH regulation.
|RDA is 700 mg||Dietary inadequacy is not likely if protein and calcium intake are adequate.|
|Magnesium||About 50% is located in bone; the remaining 50% is almost entirely inside body cells, with only about 1% located in extracellular fluid.
Ionic Mg functions as an activator of many enzymes and so influences almost all body processes.
|RDA is 400-420 mg for men,
310-320 mg for women,
aged 14-70+ y
|Dietary inadequacy is considered unlikely, but conditioned deficiency is often seen in clinical medicine, usually associated with surgery, alcoholism, malabsorption, loss of body fluids, and certain hormonal and renal diseases.|
|Sodium||35%-45% in bone; major cation of extracellular fluid; only a small amount found inside cells
Regulates body fluid osmolarity, pH, and body fluid volume
|500-3000 mg||Dietary inadequacy probably never occurs, although low blood sodium levels require treatment in certain clinical disorders.
Sodium restriction may be necessary in certain cardiovascular and renal disorders.
|Chloride||Mostly present in extracellular fluid:
<15% inside cells
Major anion of extracellular fluid, functioning in combination with sodium Serves as a buffer and enzyme activator and is a component of gastric hydrochloric acid.
|750-3000 mg||In most cases, dietary intake has little significance except in the presence of vomiting, diarrhea, or profuse sweating, under which conditions a deficiency may develop.|
|Potassium||Major cation of intracellular fluid, with only small amounts in extracellular fluid
Functions in regulating pH and osmolarity, and in cell membrane transfer.
Ion is necessary for carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
|2000 mg||Dietary inadequacy unlikely, but conditioned deficiency may be found in individuals with kidney disease, diabetic acidosis, excessive vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating.
Potassium excess may be a problem in renal failure and severe acidosis.
|Sulfur||Bulk of dietary sulfur is present in sulfur-containing amino acids needed for synthesis of essential metabolites.
Functions in oxidation-reduction reactions.
Sulfur also functions as part of thiamin and biotin, and as inorganic sulfur.
|The need for sulfur is satisfied by essential sulfurcontaining amino acids.||Dietary intake is chiefly from sulfur-containing amino acids, and adequacy is related to protein intake.|
|Iron||About 70% in hemoglobin; about 25% stored in liver, spleen, and bone
Iron is a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and is important in oxygen transfer.
It is also present in serum transferrin and certain enzymes.
|10 mg for men,15 mg for women||Iron deficiency anemia occurs in women of reproductive age and in infants and preschool children.
Deficiency may be associated in some cases, with unusual blood loss, parasites, or malabsorption.
Anemia is the last effect of a deficient state.
|Zinc||Almost none occurs in ionic form.
Present in most tissues, with greatest amounts occurring in the liver, voluntary muscle, and bone
A constituent of many enzymes and of insulin, zinc is important in nucleic acid metabolism.
|15 mg for men,
12 mg for women
|The extent of dietary zinc inadequacy in this country is not known.
Conditioned deficiency may be seen in systemic childhood illnesses and in patients who are nutritionally depleted or who have been subjected to severe stress, such as surgery.
|Copper||Found in all body tissues with the bulk located in the liver, brain, heart, and kidney
Constituent of enzymes and of ceruloplasmin and erythrocuprein in blood.
May be an integral part of DNA or RNA molecule
|1.5-3 mg||There is no evidence that specific deficiencies of copper occur in humans.
Menkes’ disease is a genetic disorder resulting in copper deficiency.
|Iodine||Constituent of T4 and related compounds synthesized by thyroid gland
T4 functions in the control of reactions involving cellular energy.
|150 μg||Iodization of table salt is recommended, especially in areas where food is low in iodine.|
|Manganese||Highest concentration in bone: also relatively high concentrations in pituitary, liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tissue
Constituent of essential enzyme systems; rich in mitochondria of liver cells.
|2.5-5.0 mg||Deficiency unlikely to occur in humans|
|Fluoride||Present in bone and in teeth
In optimal amounts in water and diet, fluoride reduces dental caries and may minimize bone loss.
|AI is 4 mg for men;
3 mg for women
|In areas where fluoride content of water is low, fluoridation of water (1 ppm) has been beneficial in reducing the incidence of dental caries.|
|Molybdenum||Constituent of an essential enzyme (xanthine oxidase) and of flavoproteins||75-250 μg||No available information|
|Cobalt||Constituent of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), occurring bound to protein in foods of animal origin
Essential to the normal function of all cells, particularly cells of bone marrow and nervous and gastrointestinal systems.
|2,4 μg vitamin B12||Primary dietary inadequacy is rare except when no animal products are consumed.
Deficiency states may be found in association with lack of gastric intrinsic factor, gastrectomy, or malabsorption syndromes.
|Selenium||Involved in fat metabolism, vitamin E, and antioxidant functions||70 μg in men, 55 μg in women||Keshan disease is a selenium-deficient state.
Deficiency has occurred in patients receiving long-term TPN without selenium supplementation.
|Chromium||Associated with glucose metabolism||50-20 μg||Deficiency is found in severe malnutrition, states and may be factor in diabetes in the elderly and in cardiovascular diseases.|
AI; adequate intake
ATP; adenosine triphosphate
ESADDI; estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake
RDA; Recommended Dietary Allowance
TPN; total parenteral nutrition